Most obvious is the greater physical harm that can be inflicted by male violence due to males' often greater size and strength.Compared to boys, girls are more likely to sustain injuries and require medical treatment as a result of the violence (Makepeace, 1987).
A number of school based programs focusing on reducing violence in teen dating relationships and promoting healthy respectful relationships show promising results.
The majority of these programs have focused on increasing students' awareness and knowledge about dating violence, changing attitudes and norms that condone violence, and building conflict resolution and communication skills.
Key risk factors consistently found in the literature to be associated with inflicting dating violence include the following: holding norms accepting or justifying the use of violence in dating relationships (Malik et al., 1997; O'Keefe, 1997); having friends in violent relationships (Arriaga & Foshee, 2004); exposure to violence in one's family and community violence (Foo & Margolin, 1995, O'Keefe, 1997; Schwartz et al., 1997); alcohol and drug use (O'Keeffe et al., 1986; Silverman et al., 2001); and a having a history of aggression (Riggs & O'Leary, 1989, Chase et al., 1998).
The one factor that has consistently been associated with being the victim of dating violence, particularly for males, is inflicting dating violence (O'Keefe, 1997).
Although there are methodological problems accurately determining prevalence rates, a conservative estimate is that one in three adolescents has experienced physical or sexual violence in a dating relationship (Avery-Leaf, Cascardi, O'Leary, & Cano, 1997).
These rates are higher when verbal abuse is included in the definition.There is considerable controversy regarding whether violence in teen dating relationships involves mutual aggression and indeed several studies report higher rates of inflicting violence for females (Foshee, 1996; Gray & Foshee, 1997; O'Keefe, 1997).Fundamental problems exist, however, in asserting gender parity regarding relationship violence.It has a radioactive isotope (Krypton-81) that decays very slowly, and a stable isotope (Krypton-83) that does not decay.Comparing the proportion of stable-to-radioactive isotopes provides the age of the ice.Carbon dating doesn't work well on ice because carbon-14 is produced in the ice itself by cosmic rays.